Following DNA replication, eukaryotic cells must biorient all sister chromatids prior to cohesion cleavage at anaphase. In animal cells, sister chromatids gradually biorient during prometaphase, but current models of mitosis in S. cerevisiae assume that biorientation is established shortly after S phase. This assumption is based on the observation of a bilobed distribution of yeast kinetochores early in mitosis and suggests fundamental differences between yeast mitosis and mitosis in animal cells. By applying super-resolution imaging methods, we show that yeast and animal cells share the key property of gradual and stochastic chromosome biorientation. The characteristic bilobed distribution of yeast kinetochores, hitherto considered synonymous for biorientation, arises from kinetochores in mixed attachment states to microtubules, the length of which discriminates bioriented from syntelic attachments. Our results offer a revised view of mitotic progression in S. cerevisiae that augments the relevance of mechanistic information obtained in this powerful genetic system for mammalian mitosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)