Objectives. To investigate an alternative technique using an onlay patch of porcine small intestine submucosa (SIS) allograft to bridge a ureteral defect. For ureteral strictures that fail endourologic management, few options are available for minimally invasive repair or reconstruction. Although laparoscopic interposition of a tubularized allograft of porcine SIS has great promise, animal studies have yielded mixed results. Methods. In 9 anesthetized female pigs, cystoscopy and retrograde pyelography were performed, and a ureteral stent was placed. Transperitoneal laparoscopic access was obtained, and a segment of ureter 2 cm long and encompassing one half the ureteral circumference was excised. An oval-shaped patch of SIS was sutured to the native ureter to cover the defect. In one control survival animal, the ureter was excised and a stent placed, but no SIS onlay was performed. Two pigs were killed immediately. In the survival group (6 pigs), the stents were removed at 1 week (n = 2), 2 weeks (n = 2), or 4 weeks (n = 2) and the corresponding animals were killed at 3 weeks (n = 2), 6 weeks (n = 2), and 9 weeks (n = 2). Intravenous urography was performed to evaluate renal function, and retrograde pyelography was performed after harvest to identify ureteral stricture or obstruction. The ureteral grafts were measured and examined histologically. Results. All 6 kidneys from the survival group were grossly normal, appeared promptly on intravenous urography, and were patent on retrograde pyelography. The control animal demonstrated complete ureteral obstruction. By 9 weeks, the SIS graft was replaced with ureteral tissue, including the muscle layers. The epithelium was primarily transitional epithelium, with focal intestinal metaplasia. The submucosa and ureteral musculature appeared histologically normal. Conclusions. In the porcine model, a patch graft technique using SIS appears to induce ureteral regrowth. Renal function remained intact, and no evidence of stricture was demonstrated on radiographic imaging. Before clinical application of this technique, evaluation in a stricture model is required.
ASJC Scopus subject areas