Gut microbiota influence and modulate host immune responses. In preclinical cancer models, mice lacking gut microbiota have a markedly diminished response to immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Further, in melanoma patients, specific commensal gut microbiota have been associated with a positive clinical response to immunotherapy. In order to study the gut microbiome and metabolome, we have developed methods for fecal sample collection and processing, microbiome and metabolome profiling, and bioinformatic analysis. This protocol will be a useful tool for interrogating the taxonomic composition and functional output of a melanoma patient’s gut microbiome.