Tumor oxygen dynamics: Comparison of 19F MR EPI and frequency domain NIR spectroscopy

Yulin Song, Kate L. Worden, Xin Jiang, Dawen Zhao, Anca Constantinescu, Hanli Liu, Ralph P. Mason

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Oxygen plays a key role in tumor therapy and may be related to tumor development: e.g., angiogenesis and metastasis. Using noninvasive techniques to accurately measure tumor oxygenation could assist in developing novel therapies. Here, we have used the FREDOM (Fluorocarbon Relaxometry using Echo planar imaging for Dynamic Oxygen Mapping) approach based on hexafluorobenzene (HFB) to monitor tissue oxygen tension (pO2) of rat breast and prostate tumors and compared the results with changes in tumor vascular hemoglobin saturation (sO2) and concentration observed using a new dual wavelength homodyne near-infrared (NIR) system. The dynamic changes in pO 2 and sO2 were assessed while rats were breathing various gases. NIR showed significant changes in vascular oxygenation accompanying respiratory interventions. 19F MR-EPI also showed significant changes in tissue pO2 and revealed considerable regional heterogeneity in both absolute values and rate of change accompanying interventions. Generally, changes in vascular sO2 preceded tissue pO2, particularly for smaller tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)225-236
Number of pages12
JournalAdvances in experimental medicine and biology
StatePublished - 2003


  • Echo planar imaging
  • MRI
  • NIR spectroscopy
  • Oxygen tension
  • Tumor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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