Trends in Cochlear Implantation in Texas: An Exploration of Outpatient Discharge Data, 2010 to 2017

Sanjana Balachandra, Imam M. Xierali, Marc A. Nivet, Jacob B. Hunter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Objectives: To describe trends in cochlear implantation (CI) disparities in Texas using an all-payer database from 2010 to 2017. Methods: Texas Outpatient Surgical and Radiological Procedure Data, a public use data file, was accessed to analyze outpatient CI cases for Texas. Variables analyzed include patient age, sex, race/ethnicity, and insurance status. Population data from the American Community Survey generated CI utilization rates by patient demographic characteristics. Results: There were 6158 CI cases identified during the study period. The number of CI per year nearly doubled from 497 in 2010 to 961 in 2017. The majority of CI recipients were white (59.5%), male (51.9%), and privately insured (47.9%). All sub-populations statewide had more CI in 2017 compared to 2010, with the overall CI per 100 000 population increasing from 1.98 to 3.50 per 100 000 population. Patients over 75 demonstrated the greatest increase in the CI rate per 100 000 population, increasing from 4.60 in 2010 to 14.30 in 2017. Regarding race/ethnicity, all sub-populations noted an increase in the CI per 100 000 population, with white patients demonstrating the highest rate in 2017, at 4.36 CI per 100 000 population. Asian patients had a 502% increase in the CI rate (from 0.42 to 2.53), compared with 87.9%, 84.4%, and 69.2% increases for white, Black, and Hispanic populations, respectively. Conclusions: CI became more widespread between 2010 and 2017, benefiting certain populations more than others. Black and Hispanic populations had lower CI per 100 000 population than their white peers, while patients >65 years of age accounted for the greatest increase in CI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-93
Number of pages8
JournalAnnals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • African Americans
  • Hispanic Americans
  • Texas
  • ages
  • child
  • cochlear implantation
  • ethnic groups
  • insurance coverage
  • medical underserved area

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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