Transvaginal Color Mapping Ultrasound in the First Trimester Predicts Placenta Accreta Spectrum: A Retrospective Cohort Study

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2 Scopus citations


Objectives: Ultrasound (US) prediction of placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) in the first trimester may be aided by postprocessing mechanisms employing color pixel quantification near the bladder–uterine serosal interface. Our objective was to create a postprocessing algorithm of color images to identify findings associated with PAS and compare quantification to sonologist impression in prospectively obtained cine US images. Methods: Transverse transvaginal (TV) US color cines obtained in the first trimester as part of a prospective study were reviewed. Investigators blinded to clinical outcomes reviewed anonymized cines that were archived and labeled the bladder–uterine serosal interface. Color pixels within 2 cm of the defined bladder–uterine serosal interface were ascertained using a Python-based plugin in the Horos open-source DICOM viewer. A sonologist classified the findings as suspicious for invasion, indeterminate, or normal. Statistical analysis was performed using Wilcoxon rank-sum test, Cochran-Armitage trend test, and calculation of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Fifty-four studies met inclusion criteria. Of those, six (11%) required hysterectomy with pathologic confirmation of PAS. Women requiring hysterectomy had a significantly higher color Doppler pixel area than those not requiring hysterectomy (P =.0205). A significant trend was identified in the sonologist impression of invasion (P =.0003). ROC's comparing sonologist impression to Doppler color imaging areas were comparable (P =.054). Conclusions: Color Doppler mapping in the first trimester showed an increase in color pixel area near the bladder–uterine serosal interface in women requiring cesarean hysterectomy with histologically confirmed PAS at time of delivery, compared to women without hysterectomy or pathologic evidence of PAS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2735-2743
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • cesarean scar pregnancy
  • color mapping
  • first-trimester ultrasound
  • low implantation
  • placenta accreta spectrum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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