TIMER: A web server for comprehensive analysis of tumor-infiltrating immune cells

Taiwen Li, Jingyu Fan, Binbin Wang, Nicole Traugh, Qianming Chen, Jun S. Liu, Bo Li, X. Shirley Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3086 Scopus citations


Recent clinical successes of cancer immunotherapy necessitate the investigation of the interaction between malignant cells and the host immune system. However, elucidation of complex tumor-immune interactions presents major computational and experimental challenges. Here, we present Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER; cistrome.shinyapps. io/timer) to comprehensively investigate molecular characterization of tumor-immune interactions. Levels of six tumor-infiltrating immune subsets are precalculated for 10, 897 tumors from 32 cancer types. TIMER provides 6 major analytic modules that allow users to interactively explore the associations between immune infiltrates and a wide spectrum of factors, including gene expression, clinical outcomes, somatic mutations, and somatic copy number alterations. TIMER provides a user-friendly web interface for dynamic analysis and visualization of these associations, which will be of broad utilities to cancer researchers. Cancer Res; 77(21); e108-10.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e108-e110
JournalCancer research
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 1 2017

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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