Thrombin Generation in a patient with Triple Positive Antiphospholipid Syndrome Treated with Three Different Anticoagulants

Colin P. Bergstrom, Ayesha Zia, Ravi Sarode, Srikanth Nagalla

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Introduction: Venous and arterial thrombosis is one of the hallmarks of Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome (APS). The traditional treatment for individuals with APS and venous thrombosis has been vitamin K antagonists. However, with the widespread use of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) there has been conflicting evidence regarding their safety and failure rate as alternatives to warfarin. Reasons for this failure remain elusive. We utilized the thrombin generation assay (TGA) to investigate the anticoagulation efficacy of three different agents in a patient with triple-positive APS to acquire a better understanding of the pathophysiology of APS. Methods: Blood samples were obtained from a single patient with APS at five distinct time points while on three different anticoagulants: rivaroxaban, warfarin, and enoxaparin. The effects of these anticoagulants on TG potential were evaluated using the TGA. Results: In the presence of thrombomodulin, rivaroxaban had the highest endogenous thrombin potential, thrombin peak, velocity index, and thrombin inactivation velocity (821.9 nMmin, 121.5 nM, 36.44 nM/min, 7.19 nM/min) when compared to warfarin (121-367 nMmin, 13.85-121.5 nM, 3.02-3.85 nM/min, 0.64-4.55 nM/min) and enoxaparin (242-378.8 nM min, 21.33-23.78 nM, 2.87-3.85 nM/min, 0.747-0.784 nM/min). This trend was also observed in the absence of thrombomodulin. Conclusions: These results suggest that patients with APS treated with rivaroxaban may be at greater risk for thrombosis compared to warfarin or enoxaparin. The findings may provide insight into the recent studies in patients with triple positive APS randomized to different anticoagulants demonstrating high rates of thrombosis with rivaroxaban. Further studies are necessary to elucidate the clinical significance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102815
JournalTransfusion and Apheresis Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2020


  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Rivaroxaban
  • Thrombin Generation Assay
  • Thrombosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology


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