The syndromes of primary hormone resistance

Guido F M Verhoeven, Jean D. Wilson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The clinical features, genetics, pathophysiology, and management of endocrine diseases in which primary hormone resistance is the fundamental defect have been reviewed. Primary hormone resistance has been documented for nearly all hormones-vasopressin, parathyroid hormone, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, thyrotropin, gonadotropins, insulin, androgens, cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone, thyroid hormones, and vitamin D. A striking exception is estradiol, a steroid that may be vital for early embryonic development. Most of the hormone unresponsiveness syndromes represent only partial defects, and it is likely that most such patients go unrecognized. Therefore, hormone resistance should be suspected not only when a patient presents with hypofunction of a particular endocrine system combined with high endogenous hormone levels but also whenever apparently normal function of an endocrine system is associated with inappropriately elevated levels of the corresponding hormone. The value of these defects in hormone responsiveness as a natural laboratory for the study of the normal mechanisms of hormone action is discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)253-289
Number of pages37
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1979

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology


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