The kidney stone and increased water intake trial in steel workers: results from a pilot study

Yair Lotan, Jodi Antonelli, Inmaculada Buendia Jiménez, Hakam Gharbi, Ron Herring, Allison Beaver, Aphrihl Dennis, Dendra von Merveldt, Suzie Carter, Adam Cohen, John Poindexter, Orson W Moe, Margaret S Pearle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Preventing dehydration in subjects at risk may provide a means of primary prevention of kidney stones. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the hydration status of an at-risk group of steel plant workers based on end-of-shift (‘post-shift’) spot urine osmolality and 24-h urinary stone risk parameters. 100 volunteers were recruited from Gerdau Midlothian steel mill in Texas on 11/14/14 and 12/5/14. Clinical data were recorded and post-shift spot urine sample was used to measure urine osmolality. Participants were invited to submit a 24-h urine sample within 4 weeks of enrollment. The mean age was 41 years and 95 % were men. The majority of subjects were white (75 %), followed by 10 % Hispanic and 9 % black. The mean body mass index was 30.1 kg/m2 and overall 16 % had a past history of stone disease. Mean post-shift urine spot osmolality was 704.5 mOsm (169–1165 mOsm) and was >800 and >700 mOsm in 39 and 57 %, respectively. Among 59 24-h urines samples, the mean volume was 1.89 ± 0.92 l/day, with 56 % < 2 L and 17 % < 1 L. Elevated levels of urinary analytes were found in 29 % of subjects for calcium (>250 mg/TV), 39 % for uric acid (>700 mg/TV), 25 % for oxalate (>45 mg/TV) and 50 % for sodium (>200 meq/TV). The prevalence of stone disease in this population of steel workers was higher than the published prevalence of stone disease in the general population. A significant number of workers had concentrated post-shift and 24-h urines and elevated levels of urinary analytes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-183
Number of pages7
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017


  • Hydration
  • Kidney stones
  • Prevention
  • Steel workers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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