The Changing Face of Surgical Education: Simulation as the New Paradigm

Daniel J. Scott, Juan C. Cendan, Carla M. Pugh, Rebecca M. Minter, Gary L. Dunnington, Rosemary A. Kozar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


Surgical simulation has evolved considerably over the past two decades and now plays a major role in training efforts designed to foster the acquisition of new skills and knowledge outside of the clinical environment. Numerous driving forces have fueled this fundamental change in educational methods, including concerns over patient safety and the need to maximize efficiency within the context of limited work hours and clinical exposure. The importance of simulation has been recognized by the major stake-holders in surgical education, and the Residency Review Committee has mandated that all programs implement skills training curricula in 2008. Numerous issues now face educators who must use these novel training methods. It is important that these individuals have a solid understanding of content, development, research, and implementation aspects regarding simulation. This paper highlights presentations about these topics from a panel of experts convened at the 2008 Academic Surgical Congress.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)189-193
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 15 2008


  • competency
  • proficiency
  • simulation
  • surgical education
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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