The added value of the advanced practice provider in paediatric acute care cardiology

Amanda J. Willis, Amanda Hoerst, Stephen A. Hart, Diana Holbein, Kristyn Lowery, Ashraf S. Harahsheh, Alaina K. Kipps, Nicolas Madsen, Sonali S. Patel, Ronn E. Tanel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Abstract Objectives: Advanced practice providers (APPs) are being employed at increasing rates in order to meet new in-hospital care demands. Utilising the Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative (PAC3) hospital survey, we evaluated variations in staffing models regarding first-line providers and assessed associations with programme volume, acuity of care, and post-operative length of stay (LOS). Study design: The PAC3 hospital survey defined staffing models and resource availability across member institutions. A resource acuity score was derived for each participating acute care cardiology unit. Surgical volume was obtained from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons database. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to evaluate the relationship between staffing models and centre volume as well as unit acuity. A previously developed case-mix adjustment model for total post-operative LOS was utilised in a multinomial regression model to evaluate the association of APP patient coverage with observed-to-expected post-operative LOS. Results: Surveys were completed by 31 (91%) PAC3 centres in 2017. Nearly all centres (94%) employ APPs, with a mean of 1.7 (range 0-5) APPs present on weekday rounds. The number of APPs present has a positive correlation with surgical volume (r = 0.49, p < 0.01) and increased acuity (r = 0.39, p = 0.03). In the multivariate model, as coverage by APPs increased from low to moderate or high, there was greater likelihood of having a shorter-than-expected post-operative LOS (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The incorporation of paediatric acute care cardiology APPs is associated with reduced post-operative LOS. Future studies are necessary to understand how APPs impact these patient-specific outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)248-251
Number of pages4
JournalCardiology in the Young
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • care model
  • collaborative
  • front-line provider
  • Keywords: Nurse practitioner
  • physician assistant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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