Temporal Trends, Practice Variation, and Associated Outcomes With IVUS Use During Peripheral Arterial Intervention

Sanjay Divakaran, Sahil A. Parikh, Beau M. Hawkins, Siyan Chen, Yang Song, Subhash Banerjee, Kenneth Rosenfield, Eric A. Secemsky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Background: Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has been shown in limited prospective studies to improve procedural outcomes for patients undergoing lower extremity peripheral arterial intervention (PVI). Objectives: The authors aimed to study temporal trends, practice variation, and associated outcomes with the use of IVUS during PVI among Medicare beneficiaries. Methods: All PVIs performed from 2016 to 2019 among Medicare beneficiaries aged >65 years were included. Temporal trends in IVUS use were stratified by procedural location (inpatient, outpatient, or ambulatory surgery center [ASC]/office-based laboratory [OBL]) and physician specialty. The primary outcome was major adverse limb events (MALE). Inverse probability weighting was used to account for differences in baseline characteristics. Cox regression with competing risks was used to estimate weighted hazard ratios. Results: During the study period, 543,488 PVIs were included, of which 63,372 (11.7%) used IVUS. A substantial growth in IVUS use was observed, which was driven by procedures performed in ASCs/OBLs (23.6% increase from quarter 1 of 2016 through quarter 4 of 2019). Among operators who used IVUS, there was also notable variation in use (median operator use 5.4% of cases; IQR: 2.2%-15.0%; range, <1%-100%). In weighted analysis, IVUS use during PVI was associated with a lower risk of MALE through a median of 514 days (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.70-0.75; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: In contemporary nationwide data, IVUS use during PVI has increased since 2016, driven by growth in the ASC/OBL setting. However, there remains substantial variation in operator practice. When used during PVI, IVUS was associated with a lower risk of short- and long-term MALE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2080-2090
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number20
StatePublished - Oct 24 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • intravascular ultrasound
  • major adverse limb event(s)
  • peripheral arterial intervention
  • peripheral artery disease

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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