Temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device- a pediatric swine model study

Erik B. Kulstad, Melissa Naiman, Patrick Shanley, Frank Garrett, Todd Haryu, Donald Waller, Farshid Azarafrooz, Daniel Mark Courtney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


An increasing number of conditions appear to benefit from control and modulation of temperature, but available techniques to control temperature often have limitations, particularly in smaller patients with high surface to mass ratios. We aimed to evaluate a new method of temperature modulation with an esophageal heat transfer device in a pediatric swine model, hypothesizing that clinically significant modulation in temperature (both increases and decreases of more than 1°C) would be possible. Methods: Three female Yorkshire swine averaging 23 kg were anesthetized with inhalational isoflurane prior to placement of the esophageal device, which was powered by a commercially available heat exchanger. Swine temperature was measured rectally and cooling and warming were performed by selecting the appropriate external heat exchanger mode. Temperature was recorded over time in order to calculate rates of temperature change. Histopathology of esophageal tissue was performed after study completion. Results: Average swine baseline temperature was 38.3°C. Swine #1 exhibited a cooling rate of 3.5°C/hr; however, passive cooling may have contributed to this rate. External warming blankets maintained thermal equilibrium in swine #2 and #3, demonstrating maximum temperature decrease of 1.7°C/hr. Warming rates averaged 0.29°C/hr. Histopathologic analysis of esophageal tissue showed no adverse effects. Conclusions: An esophageal heat transfer device successfully modulated the temperature in a pediatric swine model. This approach to temperature modulation may offer a useful new modality to control temperature in conditions warranting temperature management (such as maintenance of normothermia, induction of hypothermia, fever control, or malignant hyperthermia).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number16
JournalBMC Anesthesiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 4 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine


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