Upon a return to the earth from spaceflight, astronauts often become presyncope during standing. This orthostatic intolerance is provoked by the exposure to the stimulation model of microgravitational environment in humans, 6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR). The mechanism for the orthostatic hypotension after microgravity remains unclear. It has been reported that a microgravity-induced loss of circulatory blood volume, a withdrawal of vagal tone, or a reduction of carotid-cardiac baroreflex function may relate to this phenomenon. A recent article has reported that astronauts who showed presyncopal events after spaceflight had subnormal increases in plasma norepinephrine under the standing tests, suggesting that a hypoadrenergic responsiveness to orthostatic stress may partly contribute to postflight orthostatic hypotension. However, it is unclear how and whether or not the sympathetic outflow to peripheral vessels and the release of norepinephrine from sympathetic nerve terminals were altered after microgravity. The vasomotor sympathetic outflow to the skeletal muscle can be directly recorded as muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) using a microneurographic technique. In addition, the rate of an increase in plasma norepinephrine per that in MSNA in response to applied orthostatic stress can partly indicate the norepinephrine release to sympathetic stimuli as a trial assessment. Therefore, we performed 60 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) tests before and after 14 days of HDBR, and examined the differences in the MSNA response and the indicated norepinephrine release during HUT tests between the subjects who did (defined as the fainters) and those who did not (defined as the nonfainters) become presyncopal in HUT tests after HDBR.
|Journal of gravitational physiology : a journal of the International Society for Gravitational Physiology
|Published - Jul 1999
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine