Summative index: Acute pain management in older adults

Marita G. Titler, Keela Herr, Xian Jin Xie, John M. Brooks, Margo L. Schilling, J. Lawrence Marsh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


One of the challenges in measuring adoption of complex evidence-based practices (EBPs) such as acute pain management is determining what constitutes adherence to an EBP guideline. Traditionally, individual process indicators extrapolated from an EBP guideline are selected as dependent measures of guideline adoption. When using multiple indicators, the challenge is determining the number of indicators that must be met to define adherence to the EBP guideline. The primary goal of the study reported herein was to develop and test a summative index (SI) of guideline adherence for acute pain management of hospitalized older adults. Steps in formulating the initial index are described as well as refinement of this metric. Techniques used included factor analysis, discriminate validity, and split-half reliability. The resulting SI is composed of 18 indicators each scored as 0 (not present) or 1 (present), with a total SI score of 0 to 18.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)264-273
Number of pages10
JournalApplied Nursing Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Nov 1 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nursing(all)


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