Purpose: There is a need to identify cancer chemoprevention mechanisms. We reported previously that all-transretinoic acid (RA) prevented carcinogenic transformation of BEAS-2B immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells by causing G1 arrest, permitting repair of genomic DNA damage. G 1 arrest was triggered by cyclin D1 proteolysis via ubiquitin-dependent degradation. This study investigated which chemopreventive agents activated this degradation program and whether cyclin E was also degraded. Experimental Design: This study examined whether: (a) cyclin E protein was affected by RA treatment; (b) cyclin degradation occurred in derived BEAS-2B-R1 cells that were partially resistant to RA; and (c) other candidate chemopreventive agents caused cyclin degradation. Results: RA treatment triggered degradation of cyclin E protein, and ALLN, a proteasomal inhibitor, inhibited this degradation. Induction of the retinoic acid receptor β, growth suppression, and cyclin degradation were each inhibited in BEAS-2B-R1 cells. Transfection experiments in BEAS-2B cells indicated that RA treatment repressed expression of wild-type cyclin Dl and cyclin E, but ALLN inhibited this degradation. Mutation of threonine 286 stabilized transfected cyclin D1, and mutations of threonines 62 and 380 stabilized transfected cyclin E, despite RA treatment. Specific chemopreventive agents triggered cyclin degradation. Nonclassical retinoids (fenretinide and retinoid X receptor agonists) and a synthetic triterpenoid (2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1, 9-dien-28-oic acid) each suppressed BEAS-2B growth and activated this degradation program. However, a vitamin D3 analog (RO-24-5531), a cyclooxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin), and a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist (rosiglitazone) each suppressed BEAS-2B growth, but did not cause cyclin degradation. BEAS-2B-R1 cells remained responsive to nonclassical retinoids and to 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-oic acid. Conclusions: Specific chemopreventive agents activate cyclin proteolysis. Yet, broad resistance did not occur after acquired resistance to a single agent. This provides a therapeutic rationale for combination chemoprevention with agents activating non-cross-resistant pathways.
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