Sjögren's syndrome: Diagnosis and management

Ibtisam Al-Hashimi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


This article reviews current understanding of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of Sjögren's syndrome. Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the exocrine glands with multiple nonexocrine features. It is found predominantly in middle-aged women but exists throughout the population. The diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome can be challenging because the cardinal sicca symptoms may be subclinical or attributed to other causes, such as medications or aging. Differential diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome can be confounded by the multiple exocrine manifestations in the mouth, eyes, ears, nose, skin, vagina, and respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, as well as seemingly unrelated nonexocrine involvement in the thyroid, liver, kidneys and the musculoskeletal, vascular and nervous systems. This article concludes that early diagnosis of Sjögren's syndrome is crucial to prevent and/or minimize potentially life-threatening complications. Periodic follow-up of patients' status and collaboration between the primary-care physician and the rheumatologist, dentist, ophthalmologist and other specialists are indispensable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-122
Number of pages16
JournalWomen's Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2007


  • Autoimmune disease
  • Cevimeline
  • Diagnosis
  • Exocrinopathy
  • Multisystem disorder
  • Pilocarpine
  • Salagen
  • Salivary substitute
  • Sjögren's syndrome
  • Treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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