Simultaneous measurement of macro- and microvascular blood flow and oxygen saturation for quantification of muscle oxygen consumption

Erin K. Englund, Zachary B. Rodgers, Michael C. Langham, Emile R. Mohler, Thomas F. Floyd, Felix W. Wehrli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose: To investigate the relationship between blood flow and oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle, a technique called “Velocity and Perfusion, Intravascular Venous Oxygen saturation and T*2 ” (vPIVOT) is presented. vPIVOT allows the quantification of feeding artery blood flow velocity, perfusion, draining vein oxygen saturation, and muscle T*2, all at 4-s temporal resolution. Together, the measurement of blood flow and oxygen extraction can yield muscle oxygen consumption ((Formula presented.)) via the Fick principle. Methods: In five subjects, vPIVOT-derived results were compared with those obtained from stand-alone sequences during separate ischemia-reperfusion paradigms to investigate the presence of measurement bias. Subsequently, in 10 subjects, vPIVOT was applied to assess muscle hemodynamics and (Formula presented.) following a bout of dynamic plantar flexion contractions. Results: From the ischemia-reperfusion paradigm, no significant differences were observed between data from vPIVOT and comparison sequences. After exercise, the macrovascular flow response reached a maximum 8 ± 3 s after relaxation; however, perfusion in the gastrocnemius muscle continued to rise for 101 ± 53 s. Peak (Formula presented.) calculated based on mass-normalized arterial blood flow or perfusion was 15.2 ± 6.7 mL O2/min/100 g or 6.0 ± 1.9 mL O2/min/100 g, respectively. Conclusions: vPIVOT is a new method to measure blood flow and oxygen saturation, and therefore to quantify muscle oxygen consumption. Magn Reson Med 79:846–855, 2018.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)846-855
Number of pages10
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018


  • exercise
  • ischemia
  • muscle
  • oxygen consumption
  • perfusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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