Simulation for Colorectal Surgery

Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Lisa Parker, Suvranu De, Muneera Kapadia, Alessandro Fichera

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Introduction: Colorectal surgery is a highly specialized field in surgery that deals with the surgical intervention of disease processes of the colon, rectum, and anus. Gaining proficiency in this field requires training both inside and outside of the operating room. Simulation plays a key role in training surgeons in colorectal surgery. The goal of this study is to review the currently available simulators for training in the field of colorectal surgery. Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to identify simulators that are both physical such as benchtop, live animal, and cadaver, as wells as virtual reality (VR) simulators. Any reported validity evidence for these simulators were also presented. Results: There are several benchtop physical models made of silicone for training in basic colorectal tasks, such as hand-sewn and stapled anastomosis. To improve realism, explanted animal and cadaveric specimens were also used for training. To improve repeatability, objective assessment, both commercial and VR simulators also exist for training in both open and laparoscopic colorectal surgery and emerging areas such as endoscopic submucosal dissection. Conclusion: Simulation-based training in colorectal surgery is here to stay and is going to play a significant role in training, credentialing, and quality improvements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)566-569
Number of pages4
JournalJournal of Laparoendoscopic and Advanced Surgical Techniques
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • animal models
  • benchtop models
  • cadaver models
  • colorectal surgery
  • simulation
  • virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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