Sex hormones and immunosenescence

Christian R. Gomez, Vanessa Nomellini, Elizabeth J. Kovacs

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

3 Scopus citations


Sex hormones impact a number of aspects of immunity. As a result of the aging process, dramatic changes occur in the endocrine system, including the levels of sex hormones. Thus, it is possible that the hormonal environment may play a role in the effects of aging on normal aspects of the aging immune system, as well as in immune responses to injury and infection. Although much has been discovered regarding age-related changes in the immune and the endocrine systems, the exact mechanism of the interplay between these factors has yet to be resolved. In this chapter, we explore each of these areas and investigate how sex hormones may be an important component to immunosenescence. Finally, both beneficial and adverse effects of hormone replacement therapy on the aging process are discussed. As age and gender are potential modifiers of the disease process, therapies targeted to the specific hormonal and immune status of an individual may prove to be most beneficial for optimal clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationHandbook on Immunosenescence
Subtitle of host publicationBasic Understanding and Clinical Applications
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages33
ISBN (Electronic)9781402090639
ISBN (Print)9781402090622
StatePublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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