Serine ADP-ribosylation (ADPr) is a DNA damage-induced post-translational modification catalyzed by the PARP1/2:HPF1 complex. As the list of PARP1/2:HPF1 substrates continues to expand, there is a need for technologies to prepare mono-and poly-ADP-ribosylated proteins for biochemical interrogation. Here, we investigate the unique peptide ADPr activities catalyzed by PARP1 in the absence and presence of HPF1. We then exploit these activities to develop a method that facilitates installation of ADP-ribose polymers onto peptides with precise control over chain length and modification site. Importantly, the enzymatically mono-and poly-ADP-ribosylated peptides are fully compatible with protein ligation technologies. This chemoenzymatic protein synthesis strategy was employed to assemble a series of full-length, ADP-ribosylated histones and show that ADPr at H2BS6 or H3S10 converts nucleosomes into robust substrates for the chromatin remodeler ALC1. We found ALC1 preferentially remodels ‘activated’ substrates within heteroge-neous mononucleosome populations and asymmetrically ADP-ribosylated dinucleosome substrates, and that nucleosome serine ADPr is sufficient to stimulate ALC1 activity in nuclear extracts. Our study identifies a biochemical function for nucleosome serine ADPr and describes a new, highly modular approach to explore the impact that site-specific serine mono-and poly-ADPr have on protein function.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Neuroscience
- General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
- General Immunology and Microbiology