Sequential molecular changes during multistage pathogenesis of small peripheral adenocarcinomas of the lung

Junichi Soh, Shinichi Toyooka, Shuji Ichihara, Hiroaki Asano, Naruyuki Kobayashi, Hiroshi Suehisa, Hiroki Otani, Hiromasa Yamamoto, Kouichi Ichimura, Katsuyuki Kiura, Adi F. Gazdar, Hiroshi Date

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

73 Scopus citations


INTRODUCTION: We investigated EGFR and KRAS alterations among atypical adenomatous hyperplasia and small lung adenocarcinomas with bronchioloalveolar features to understand their role during multistage pathogenesis. METHODS: Sixty lesions measuring 2 cm or less were studied, including 38 noninvasive lesions (4 atypical adenomatous hyperplasias, 19 Noguchi type A and 15 type B) and 22 invasive lesions (type C) based on the World Health Organization classification and Noguchi's criteria. EGFR and KRAS mutations were examined using PCR-based assays. EGFR copy number was evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization. RESULTS: EGFR and KRAS mutations were found in 26 (43.3%) and 5 (8.3%) lesions, respectively. Increased EGFR copy number status was identified in 10 lesions (16.7%), both mutant and wild type. EGFR or KRAS mutations were present in 39.5% and 7.9% (respectively) of noninvasive lesions and 50% or 9.1% (respectively) of invasive lesions. EGFR copy number was increased in 7.9% and 31.8% of noninvasive and invasive lesions (P = 0.029). Multivariate analysis revealed that increased EGFR copy number was the only significant factor to associate with invasive lesions (P = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: EGFR and KRAS mutations occur early during the multistage pathogenesis of peripheral lung adenocarcinomas. By contrast, increased EGFR copy number is a late event during tumor development and plays a role in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma independent of the initiating molecular events.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)340-347
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Thoracic Oncology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2008


  • Amplification
  • EGFR
  • KRAS
  • Multistage pathogenesis
  • Mutation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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