Sepsis, severe sepsis, and septic shock: A review of the literature

Keegan Tupchong, Alex Koyfman, Mark Foran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Sepsis represents a continuum of illness due to systemic inflammation caused by an infection that requires prompt recognition and treatment. While sepsis is a significant cause of death worldwide, its mortality is believed to be disproportionately high in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Since 1992, its definition has become standardized, and beginning in 2002, an international collaboration has produced a set of consensus guidelines on the optimal management of septic patients. Based on new evidence, significant updates have been made since then. It is known that application of a bundled approach to patient care with the use of specific resuscitation endpoints to guide therapy leads to significant reductions in mortality from sepsis. However, it is also recognized that the implementation of such interventions in LMICs is extremely challenging. Consequently, a body of literature on practical guidelines for sepsis in developing countries has emerged. This article provides a review of the evidence for the best practice of sepsis management, with recommendations for resource-limited settings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number193
Pages (from-to)127-135
Number of pages9
JournalAfrican Journal of Emergency Medicine
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2015


  • Africa
  • Infection
  • Resource-limited
  • Sepsis
  • Septic shock
  • Severe sepsis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Gerontology
  • Emergency
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Critical Care


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