Self-perception in Preschool Children with Deprivation Amblyopia and Its Association with Deficits in Vision and Fine Motor Skills

Eileen E. Birch, Yolanda S. Castañeda, Christina S. Cheng-Patel, Sarah E. Morale, Krista R. Kelly, Serena X. Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Importance: Although the development of self-perception and self-esteem has been investigated in children with strabismic and anisometropic amblyopia, we know little about how self-perception is affected in deprivation amblyopia. Deprivation amblyopia from a dense, unilateral cataract is the least common and typically most severe form of amblyopia. After cataract extraction, optical correction, and patching treatment for amblyopia, visual acuity almost always remains abnormal, and except in rare cases, stereoacuity is nearly always nil. Objective: To determine whether deprivation amblyopia is associated with altered self-perception in preschool children and to determine whether any differences in self-perception are associated with vision or motor skill deficits. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study conducted from 2016 to 2019 at a pediatric vision research laboratory. Children aged 3 to 6 years were enrolled, including 15 children with deprivation amblyopia and 20 control children. Main Outcomes and Measures: Self-perception was assessed using the Pictorial Scale of Competence and Acceptance for Young Children, which includes 4 specific domains: cognitive competence, peer acceptance, physical competence, and maternal acceptance. Fine motor skills were evaluated with the Manual Dexterity and Aiming & Catching Scales of the Movement ABC-2 test. Visual acuity and stereoacuity also were assessed. Results: Of the 35 children included, 13 of 35 were girls (37%) and 28 of 35 were non-Hispanic White (80%). Children with deprivation amblyopia had significantly lower peer acceptance and physical competence scores compared with control children (mean [SD], 2.80 [0.44] vs 3.25 [0.33]; mean difference, 0.45; 95% CI for difference, 0.19-0.71; P =.002 and 2.94 [0.45] vs 3.41 [0.37]; mean difference, 0.47; 95% CI for difference, 0.19-0.75; P =.002, respectively). Among children with amblyopia, moderate associations were found between self-perception domain scores and motor skills, including peer acceptance and manual dexterity (r = 0.68; 95% CI, 0.26-0.89; P =.005), peer acceptance and aiming (r = 0.54; 95% CI, 0.03-0.82; P =.03), and physical competence and aiming (r = 0.55; 95% CI, 0.06-0.83; P =.03). Conclusions and Relevance: Lower self-perception of peer acceptance and physical competence were associated with early visual deprivation in children in their everyday life.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1307-1310
Number of pages4
JournalJAMA Ophthalmology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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