ROS signaling and ER stress in cardiovascular disease

Cristhiaan D. Ochoa, Ru Feng Wu, Lance S. Terada

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

180 Scopus citations


The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) produces the vast majority of all proteins secreted into the extracellular space, including hormones and cytokines, as well as cell surface receptors and other proteins which interact with the environment. Accordingly, this organelle controls essentially all vital links to a cell's external milieu, responding to systemic metabolic, inflammatory, endocrine, and mechanical stimuli. The central role the ER plays in meeting protein synthetic and quality control requirements in the face of such demands is matched by an extensive and versatile ER stress response signaling network. ROS mediate several critical aspects of this response. Nox4, an ER resident capable of producing ROS, acts as a proximal signaling intermediate to transduce ER stress-related conditions to the unfolded protein response, a homeostatic corrective mechanism. However, chronic ER stress caused by unrelenting internal or external demands produces a secondary rise in ROS, generally resulting in cell death. Sorting out the involvement of ROS at different levels of the ER stress response in specific cell types is key to understanding the molecular basis for chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and diabetes. Here, we provide an overview of ER stress signaling with an emphasis on the role of ROS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)18-29
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular aspects of medicine
StatePublished - Oct 2018


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Autophagy
  • Hypertension
  • Nox4
  • Oxidative stress
  • Ras

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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