Risk of Parkinson's disease among first-degree relatives: A community- based study

K. Marder, M. X. Tang, H. Mejia, B. Alfaro, L. Côté, E. Louis, J. Groves, R. Mayeux

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

228 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the relative risk (RR) and cumulative incidence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in first-degree relatives of PD patients compared with relatives of controls from the same geographic region. Design: A family history questionnaire was used to obtain information on all first-degree relatives of cases and controls. A subset of these first-degree relatives was also examined. A Cox proportional hazards model with double- censoring techniques for missing information was used to model the RR for PD, adjusting for gender, ethnicity, and relationship to proband. Results: A total of 1,458 first-degree relatives of 233 PD patients were 2.3 times as likely (95% CI = 1.3 to 4.0) as 7,834 relatives of 1,172 controls to develop PD. The cumulative incidence of PD to age 75 among first-degree relatives of PD patients was 2% compared with 1% among first-degree relatives of controls. The risk in male first-degree relatives was higher than in female relatives (RR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.1 to 3.4) and the risk in relatives of Caucasians was higher than in African-Americans and Hispanics (RR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.4 to 4.1). Risk for siblings and parents of probands was similar. Conclusions: Susceptibility to PD is increased in first-degree relatives of both sporadic and familial cases. The pattern of inheritance and the relationship between genetic and environmental risk factors warrant further study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)155-160
Number of pages6
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1996
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology


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