Reliability of the cutting alignment scoring tool (CAST) to assess trunk and limb alignment during a 45-degree side-step cut

Lauren S. Butler, Eryn K. Milian, Amie Deverna, Kevin Latz, Henry B. Ellis, Alexa R. Martinez, Kristin Hayden, Christian Gerstenkorn, Sara C. Carpenito, Charles W. Wyatt, Dai Sugimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Background Three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis is considered the gold standard for evaluating human movement. However, its clinical utility is limited due to cost, operating expertise, and lengthy data processing time. Numerous qualitative scoring systems have been introduced to assess trunk and lower extremity biomechanics during functional tasks. However, the reliability of qualitative scoring systems to evaluate cutting movements is understudied. Purpose/Hypotheses: To assess the inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the Cutting Alignment Scoring Tool (CAST) among sports medicine providers and to evaluate rater agreement of each component of the CAST. The hypotheses were: 1) there would be good–to-excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability among sports medicine providers, 2) there would be good to almost perfect agreement for cut width and trunk lean variables and moderate to good agreement for valgus variables of the CAST. Study Design Repeated Measures Methods Ten videos of a 45-degree side-step cut performed by adolescent athletes were independently rated on two occasions by six raters (2 medical doctors, 2 physical therapists, and 2 athletic trainers). The variables assessed include trunk lean to the opposite direction of the cut, increased cut width, knee valgus at initial load acceptance (static), and knee valgus throughout the task (dynamic). Variables were scored as either present, which were given a score of “1”, or not present, which were given a score of “0”. Video sequence was randomized in each rating session, and a two-week wash out period was given. Results The cumulative inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities were good (ICC: 0.808 and ICC: 0.753). Almost perfect kappa coefficients were recorded for cut width (k=0.949). Moderate kappa coefficients were found for trunk lean (k= 0.632) and fair kappa coefficients were noted for dynamic and static valgus (k=0.462 and k= 0.533 respectively). Conclusion These findings suggest that the CAST is a reliable tool to evaluate trunk and LE alignment during a cutting task by sports medicine providers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)312-321
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2021


  • 45-degree side step cutting task
  • Cutting alignment scoring tool
  • Movement system
  • Reliability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Rehabilitation


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