Recurrence after operative management of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

Omar Hyder, Ioannis Hatzaras, Georgios C. Sotiropoulos, Andreas Paul, Sorin Alexandrescu, Hugo Marques, Carlo Pulitano, Eduardo Barroso, Bryan M. Clary, Luca Aldrighetti, Cristina R. Ferrone, Andrew X. Zhu, Todd W. Bauer, Dustin M. Walters, Ryan Groeschl, T. Clark Gamblin, J. Wallis Marsh, Kevin T. Nguyen, Ryan Turley, Irinel PopescuCatherine Hubert, Stephanie Meyer, Michael A. Choti, Jean Francois Gigot, Gilles Mentha, Timothy M. Pawlik

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

230 Scopus citations


Introduction: Data on recurrence after operation for intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) are limited. We sought to investigate rates and patterns of recurrence in patients after operative intervention for ICC. Methods: We identified 301 patients who underwent operation for ICC between 1990 and 2011 from an international, multi-institutional database. Clinicopathologic data, recurrence patterns, and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were analyzed. Results: During the median follow up duration of 31 months (range 1-208), 53.5% developed a recurrence. Median RFS was 20.2 months and 5-year actuarial disease-free survival, 32.1%. The most common site for initial recurrence after operation of ICC was intrahepatic (n = 98; 60.9%), followed by simultaneous intra- and extrahepatic disease (n = 30; 18.6%); 33 (21.0%) patients developed extrahepatic recurrence only as the first site of recurrence. Macrovascular invasion (hazard ratio [HR], 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-3.21; P <.001), nodal metastasis (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.01-2.45; P =.04), unknown nodal status (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.10-2.25; P =.04), and tumor size ≥5 cm (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.28-2.65; P <.001) were independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. Patients were assigned a clinical score from 0 to 3 according to the presence of these risk factors. The 5-year RFS for patients with scores of 0, 1, 2, and 3 was 61.8%, 36.2%, 19.5%, and 9.6%, respectively. Conclusion: Recurrence after operative intervention for ICC was common. Disease recurred both at intra- and extrahepatic sites with roughly the same frequency. Factors such as lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and vascular invasion predict highest risk of recurrence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)811-818
Number of pages8
JournalSurgery (United States)
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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