Recent advances in the pathophysiology of nephrolithiasis

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126 Scopus citations


Over the past 10 years, major progress has been made in the pathogenesis of uric acid and calcium stones. These advances have led to our further understanding of a pathogenetic link between uric acid nephrolithiasis and the metabolic syndrome, the role of Oxalobacter formigenes in calcium oxalate stone formation, oxalate transport in Slc26a6-null mice, the potential pathogenetic role of Randall's plaque as a precursor for calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, and the role of renal tubular crystal retention. With these advances, we may target the development of novel drugs including (1) insulin sensitizers; (2) probiotic therapy with O. formigenes, recombinant enzymes, or engineered bacteria; (3) treatments that involve the upregulation of intestinal luminal oxalate secretion by increasing anion transporter activity (Slc26a6), luminally active nonabsorbed agents, or oxalate binders; and (4) drugs that prevent the formation of Randall's plaque and/or renal tubular crystal adhesions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)585-595
Number of pages11
JournalKidney international
Issue number6
StatePublished - 2009


  • Calcium oxalate
  • Kidney stone
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Nephrolithiasis
  • Uric acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


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