Quantitative assessment of simulated regurgitant flow using direct digital acquisition of Doppler color flow images

Paul A. Grayburn, Carlos G. Cigarroa, Duwayne L. Willett, M. Elizabeth Brickner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Analysis of jet momentum and proximal isovelocity surface area (PISA) have been shown to be accurate in quantitating regurgitant flow for axisymmetric free jets. However, eccentric jets directed against chamber walls are often encountered in clinical practice and could confound the assessment of regurgitant flow. Thus, we used direct digital color flow mapping to calculate flow by the momentum method and PISA in a flow model. Steady flow jets were driven through a 2-mm round orifice at flow rates of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 20 mL/sec. Jets were directed centrally and against the lateral wall of a 150 mL chamber. The raw data from a 3.25/2.5 MHz transducer (Vingmed CFM 750) was digitally transferred to a Macintosh IIci computer for analysis of the velocities comprising the jets. By linear regression, PISA was accurate in assessing flow for both free jets and wall jets (r2 = 0.98) with regression lines approximating unity. The momentum method was highly accurate for free jets (r2 = 0.98) but systematically underestimated flow for wall jets (r2 = 0.70, y = 0.21x + 0.88). Thus, analysis of simulated regurgitant flow using digital display of velocities encoded in the color flow jet is accurate for free jets by both the PISA and momentum techniques. In wall jets, the momentum technique underestimates flow because the requirement for jet axisymmetry is not met.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-109
Number of pages7
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1997


  • color flow mapping
  • echocardiography
  • regurgitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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