Quantification of myocardial perfusion reserve using dynamic SPECT imaging in humans: A feasibility study

Simona Ben-Haim, Venkatesh L. Murthy, Christopher Breault, Rayjanah Allie, Arkadiusz Sitek, Nathaniel Roth, Jolene Fantony, Stephen C. Moore, Mi Ae Park, Marie Kijewski, Athar Haroon, Piotr Slomka, Kjell Erlandsson, Rafael Baavour, Yoel Zilberstien, Jamshed Bomanji, Marcelo F. Di Carli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

175 Scopus citations


Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is well established in the diagnosis and workup of patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD); however, it can underestimate the extent of obstructive CAD. Quantification of myocardial perfusion reserve with PET can assist in the diagnosis of multivessel CAD. We evaluated the feasibility of dynamic tomographic SPECT imaging and quantification of a retention index to describe global and regional myocardial perfusion reserve using a dedicated solid-state cardiac camera. Methods: Ninety-five consecutive patients (64 men and 31 women; median age, 67 y) underwent dynamic SPECT imaging with 99mTc-sestamibi at rest and at peak vasodilator stress, followed by standard gated MPI. The dynamic images were reconstructed into 60-70 frames, 3-6 s/frame, using ordered-subsets expectation maximization with 4 iterations and 32 subsets. Factor analysis was used to estimate blood-pool time-activity curves, used as input functions in a 2-compartment kinetic model. K1 values (99mTc-sestamibi uptake) were calculated for the stress and rest images, and K2 values (99mTc-sestamibi washout) were set to zero. Myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) index was calculated as the ratio of the stress and rest K 1 values. Standard MPI was evaluated semiquantitatively, and total perfusion deficit (TPD) of at least 5% was defined as abnormal. Results: Global MPR index was higher in patients with normal MPI (n = 51) than in patients with abnormal MPI (1.61 [interquartile range (IQR), 1.33-2.03] vs. 1.27 [IQR, 1.12-1.61], P = 0.0002). By multivariable regression analysis, global MPR index was associated with global stress TPD, age, and smoking. Regional MPR index was associated with the same variables and with regional stress TPD. Sixteen patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography had 20 vessels with stenosis of at least 50%. The MPR index was 1.11 (IQR, 1.01-1.21) versus 1.30 (IQR, 1.12-1.67) in territories supplied by obstructed and nonobstructed arteries, respectively (P = 0.02). MPR index showed a stepwise reduction with increasing extent of obstructive CAD (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Dynamic tomographic imaging and quantification of a retention index describing global and regional perfusion reserve are feasible using a solid-state camera. Preliminary results show that the MPR index is lower in patients with perfusion defects and in regions supplied by obstructed coronary arteries. Further studies are needed to establish the clinical role of this technique as an aid to semiquantitative analysis of MPI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)873-879
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Nuclear Medicine
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Coronary artery disease
  • Dynamic SPECT
  • Myocardial perfusion imaging
  • Quantification
  • Solid-state camera

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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