Provider Perception of Time During Trauma Resuscitation: A Prospective Quantitative Trauma Video Review Analysis

Kali M. Kuhlenschmidt, Elias Choi, Kazi Moonmoon, James Blackwell, Paul B. Comish, Courtney J Balentine, Jennifer L. Grant, Caroline Park, Linda A. Dultz, Thomas Shoultz, Michael W Cripps, Ryan P. Dumas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Introduction: Delays in transition to the next phase of care result in increased mortality. Prehospital literature suggests emergency medical service technicians underestimate transport times by as much as 20%. What remains unknown is clinician perception of time during the trauma resuscitation. We sought to determine if clinicians have an altered perception of time. We hypothesized that clinicians underestimate time, resulting in delay of care. Methods: Clinicians at a large level 1 trauma center completed a post-trauma activation survey on the perceived elapsed time to complete three specific resuscitation endpoints. The primary study endpoint was the time to the next phase of care, defined as leaving the trauma bay to go to the operating room, interventional radiology, computerized tomography or time of death. The data from the surveys were linked and compared with recorded videos of the resuscitations. The difference in perceived versus actual time, along with confounding variables, was used to assess the impact of perception of time on the time to the next phase of care using a stepwise multivariate linear model. Results: There were 284 complete surveys and videos, culminating in 543 time points. The median perceived versus actual time (minutes [interquartile range]) to the next phase of care was 20 [10-25] versus 26 [19-40] (P < 0.001). Overall, clinicians underestimated time by 28%, such that if the resuscitation lasted 20 min, the clinician's perception was that 14.4 min elapsed. Differences in the perceived versus actual time in the procedure group impacted time to the next phase of care (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Clinicians have significant gaps in the perception of time during trauma resuscitations. This misperception occurs during procedures and correlates with an increase in the length of time to the next phase of care.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)207-212
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Surgical Research
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • Perception of time
  • Situational awareness
  • Trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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