Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in patients at metabolic risk: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline

James L. Rosenzweig, Ele Ferrannini, Scott M Grundy, Steven M. Haffner, Robert J. Heine, Edward S. Horton, Ryuzo Kawamori, Heather Edwards

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

154 Scopus citations


Objective: The objective was to develop clinical practice guidelines for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in patients at metabolic risk. Conclusions: Healthcare providers should incorporate into their practice concrete measures to reduce the risk of developing CVD and T2DM. These include the regular screening and identification of patients at metabolic risk (at higher risk for both CVD and T2DM) with measurement of blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting lipid profile, and fasting glucose. All patients identified as having metabolic risk should undergo 10-yr global risk assessment for either CVD or coronary heart disease. This scoring will determine the targets of therapy for reduction of apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. Careful attention should be given to the treatment of elevated blood pressure to the targets outlined in this guideline. The prothrombotic state associated with metabolic risk should be treated with lifestyle modification measures and in appropriate individuals with low-dose aspirin prophylaxis. Patients with prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose) should be screened at 1- to 2-yr intervals for the development of diabetes with either measurement of fasting plasma glucose or a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test. For the prevention of CVD and T2DM, we recommend that priority be given to lifestyle management. This includes antiatherogenic dietary modification, a program of increased physical activity, and weight reduction. Efforts to promote lifestyle modification should be considered an important component of the medical management of patients to reduce the risk of both CVD and T2DM.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3671-3689
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2008

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical


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