Pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in women receiving calcineurin inhibitors: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Shintaro Akiyama, Shadi Hamdeh, Naoka Murakami, Thomas G. Cotter, Hideo Suzuki, Kiichiro Tsuchiya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Aims: Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are often used for solid organ transplantation recipients or patients with immune-mediated diseases. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to understand how CNIs affect pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Methods: Electronic databases were searched for observational studies assessing pregnancy and neonatal outcomes in CNI-treated patients. The pooled rate of each outcome was determined. Metaregression was conducted to identify contributing factors to the outcomes. Results: We analysed 98 studies with a total of 5355 pregnancies in 4450 CNI-treated patients. The pooled rates of live birth and spontaneous abortion were 82.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 76.7–86.4%) and 11.7% (95% CI 8.7–15.5%), respectively. The rates of preterm delivery (33.2%, 95% CI 29.2–37.5%), low birth weight (35.8%, 95% CI 27.7–44.8%) and preeclampsia (13.5%, 95% CI 9.4–19.2%) were 3–4 times higher than the rates of general population. Nearly half of the CNI-treated patients required caesarean delivery (43.5%, 95% CI 36.9–50.3%). The rates of stillbirth, neonatal and maternal death were 4.2% (95% CI 2.8–6.2%), 2.9% (95% CI 1.8–4.8%) and 2.3% (95% CI 1.3–4.1%), respectively. Metaregression showed that preeclampsia was significantly associated with the risks of preterm delivery and low birth weight. Older maternal age, prepregnancy hypertension and cyclosporine use increased the risk of preeclampsia. Conclusion: Given the higher mortalities in CNI-treated patients and their children than the general averages, their pregnancy is considered high risk. The risks of preterm delivery and low birth weight were primarily attributed to preeclampsia. Since prepregnancy hypertension increased its risk, an appropriate preconception blood pressure management may improve their outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3950-3961
Number of pages12
JournalBritish Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2022


  • calcineurin inhibitors
  • cyclosporine
  • pregnancy
  • tacrolimus
  • transplantation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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