Preemptive gastrostomy tube placement after Norwood operation

Xiomara Garcia, Robert D B Jaquiss, Michiaki Imamura, Christopher J. Swearingen, Melvin S. Dassinger, Ritu Sachdeva

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


Objective: Because infants undergoing a Norwood operation have poor interstage weight gain, we hypothesized that preemptive gastrostomy tube (GT) placement would result in earlier discharge, improved growth, and higher survival to stage 2. Study design: Records of 74 neonates who underwent a Norwood operation were reviewed until stage 2 palliation. The patients were divided into conventional (n = 43) and preemptive GT groups (n = 31). Data included demographics, cardiac surgery, feeding strategy, length of hospitalization, and mortality. Results: Transplant-free survival to stage 2 was significantly higher in the preemptive group, but there were no significant differences in survival to discharge after stage 1, length of hospitalization, and weight-for-age z-score at discharge and at stage 2 palliation. In the conventional group, 27 of 43 underwent GT placement, all via laparotomy, 23 with Nissen fundoplication. In the preemptive group, all underwent GT placement (21 laparoscopic, 10 laparotomy), 7 with Nissen fundoplication. A second gastric intervention was performed in 11 of 21 with laparoscopic GT (7 conversion to gastrojejunostomy tube, 4 Nissen fundoplication). Conclusion: Preemptive GT placement is associated with improved survival to stage 2 after a Norwood operation but not with shorter hospitalization or better growth. A thorough gastrointestinal evaluation must be performed before GT placement to avoid additional surgery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)602-607.e1
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • ECMO
  • Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation
  • GJ
  • GT
  • Gastrojejunostomy
  • Gastrostomy tube
  • HLHS
  • Hypoplastic left heart syndrome
  • NG
  • Nasogastric tube
  • UGI
  • Upper gastrointenstinal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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