Predicting Placenta Accreta Spectrum

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10 Scopus citations


Objectives: The placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) incidence has risen substantially over the past century, paralleling a rise in cesarean delivery (CD) rates. Prenatal diagnosis of PAS improves maternal outcomes. The Placenta Accreta Index (PAI) is a standardized approach to prenatal diagnosis of PAS incorporating clinical risk and ultrasound (US) findings suggestive of placental invasion. We sought to validate the PAI for prediction of PAS in pregnancies with prior CD. Methods: This work was a retrospective cohort study of pregnancies with 1 or more prior CDs that received a US diagnosis of placenta previa or low-lying placenta in the third trimester. Images of third-trimester US with a complete placental evaluation were read by 2 blinded physicians, and the PAI was applied. Surgical outcomes and pathologic findings were reviewed. Placenta accreta spectrum was diagnosed if clinical evidence of invasion was seen at time of delivery or if any placental invasion was identified histologically. International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics criteria were used. Results: A total of 194 women met inclusion criteria. Cesarean hysterectomy was performed in 92 (47%), CD in 97 (50%), and vaginal delivery in 5 (3%). Of those who underwent hysterectomy, PAS was histologically confirmed in 79 (85%) pregnancies. Of the remaining 13 who underwent hysterectomy, all met International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics grade 1 clinical criteria for PAS. With a threshold of greater than 4, the PAI has a sensitivity of 87%, specificity of 77%, positive predictive value of 72%, and negative predictive value of 90% for PAS diagnosis. Conclusions: Contemporaneous application of the PAI, a standardized approach to US diagnosis, is useful in the prenatal prediction of PAS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1523-1532
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Ultrasound in Medicine
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • Placenta Accreta Index
  • morbidly adherent placenta
  • placenta accreta
  • placenta accreta spectrum
  • placenta increta
  • placenta percreta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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