Background: Adenovirus (AdV) is increasingly recognized as a threat to successful outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Guidelines have been developed to inform AdV screening and treatment practices, but the extent to which they are followed in clinical practice in the United States is still unknown. The incidence of AdV in the United States is also not well documented. The main objectives of the AdVance US study were thus to characterize current AdV screening and treatment practices in the United States and to estimate the incidence of AdV infection in allo-HCT recipients across multiple pediatric and adult transplant centers. Methods: Fifteen pediatric centers and 6 adult centers completed a practice patterns survey, and 15 pediatric centers and four adult centers completed an incidence survey. Results: The practice patterns survey results confirm that pediatric transplant centers are more likely than adult centers to routinely screen for AdV, and are also more likely to have a preemptive AdV treatment approach compared to adult centers. Perceived risk of AdV infection is a determining factor for whether routine screening and preemptive treatment are implemented. Most pediatric centers screen higher-risk patients for AdV weekly, in blood, and have a preemptive AdV treatment approach. The incidence survey results show that from 2015 to 2017, a total of 1230 patients underwent an allo-HCT at the 15 pediatric transplant centers, and 1815 patients underwent an allo-HCT at the 4 adult transplant centers. The incidences of AdV infection, AdV viremia, and AdV viremia ≥ 1000 copies/mL within 6 months after the first allo-HCT were 23%, 16%, and 9%, respectively, for patients at pediatric centers, and 5%, 3%, and 2%, respectively, for patients at adult centers. Conclusions: These findings provide a more recent estimate of the incidence of AdV infection in the United States, as well as a multicenter view of practice patterns around AdV infection screening and intervention criteria, in pediatric and adult allo-HCT recipients.
- allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation
- United States
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases