PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS): Diagnostic and testing eligibility criteria, differential diagnosis, and evaluation

Kim M. Keppler-Noreuil, Jonathan J. Rios, Victoria E R Parker, Robert K. Semple, Marjorie J. Lindhurst, Julie C. Sapp, Ahmad Alomari, Marybeth Ezaki, William Dobyns, Leslie G. Biesecker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

357 Scopus citations


Somatic activating mutations in the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/AKT/mTOR pathway underlie heterogeneous segmental overgrowth phenotypes. Because of the extreme differences among patients, we sought to characterize the phenotypic spectrum associated with different genotypes and mutation burdens, including a better understanding of associated complications and natural history. Historically, the clinical diagnoses in patients with PIK3CA activating mutations have included Fibroadipose hyperplasia or Overgrowth (FAO), Hemihyperplasia Multiple Lipomatosis (HHML), Congenital Lipomatous Overgrowth, Vascular Malformations, Epidermal Nevi, Scoliosis/Skeletal and Spinal (CLOVES) syndrome, macrodactyly, Fibroadipose Infiltrating Lipomatosis, and the related megalencephaly syndromes, Megalencephaly-Capillary Malformation (MCAP or M-CM) and Dysplastic Megalencephaly (DMEG). A workshop was convened at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to discuss and develop a consensus document regarding diagnosis and treatment of patients with PIK3CA-associated somatic overgrowth disorders. Participants in the workshop included a group of researchers from several institutions who have been studying these disorders and have published their findings, as well as representatives from patient-advocacy and support groups. The umbrella term of "PIK3CA-Related Overgrowth Spectrum (PROS)" was agreed upon to encompass both the known and emerging clinical entities associated with somatic PIK3CA mutations including, macrodactyly, FAO, HHML, CLOVES, and related megalencephaly conditions. Key clinical diagnostic features and criteria for testing were proposed, and testing approaches summarized. Preliminary recommendations for a uniform approach to assessment of overgrowth and molecular diagnostic testing were determined. Future areas to address include the surgical management of overgrowth tissue and vascular anomalies, the optimal approach to thrombosis risk, and the testing of potential pharmacologic therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-295
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Medical Genetics, Part A
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2015


  • CLOVES syndrome
  • Fibroadipose overgrowth
  • Macrodactyly
  • PIK3CA gene
  • PIK3CA-related overgrowth spectrum (PROS)
  • Segmental overgrowth
  • Somatic mosaicism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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