Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness: Vital Signs for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

Nitin Kondamudi, Anurag Mehta, Neela D. Thangada, Ambarish Pandey

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Current risk prediction tools do not include physical activity (PA) or cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), despite their robust association with adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and their potential as targets for preventive interventions. Recent Findings: PA and CRF are each associated with cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, independent of traditional risk factors. Improvement in CRF is associated with reduced risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and heart failure (HF). Risk prediction tools have been developed for ASCVD, and more recently for HF, to refine CVD risk assessment and inform CVD prevention strategies. Attempts have been made to incorporate PA and CRF into available CVD risk prediction models. Summary: Inclusion of PA and CRF into established CVD risk assessment models improves CVD risk prediction incremental to established CVD risk prediction tools, suggesting PA and CRF are markers of CVD risk and targets for CVD prevention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number172
JournalCurrent Cardiology Reports
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2021


  • Cardiorespiratory fitness
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Physical activity
  • Prevention
  • Risk prediction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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