Perceptions of parents and adolescent outcomes in Pakistan

Sunita Mahtani Stewart, Michael H. Bond, L. M. Ho, Riffat Moazam Zaman, Rabiya Dar, Muhammad Anwar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

68 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to examine associations among perceived parenting variables (warmth, parental knowledge of their child's daily activities, shame induction and autonomy-granting), and psychosocial outcomes in Pakistan, a culture about which little information is available in the psychological literature. Participants were early and late adolescent Pakistani boys (N = 156) and girls (N = 148). Girls perceived their parents as being warmer, more knowledgeable about their child's activities and whereabouts, and more autonomy-granting than did boys. Warmth and parental knowledge associated with positive outcomes for girls, but not boys. Autonomy-granting associated with positive outcomes in bivariate and multivariate correlations for both genders. In causal models, perceptions of parents influenced well-being partly through the mediators of self-denigration, positive self-image and relationship harmony, explaining up to 21% of the variance in outcomes. The results are discussed in the light of Western findings and the social context of middle-class urban Pakistan. The findings provide some support for self-determination theory, which states that autonomy-granting by parents facilitates offspring adjustment through internalization of parental values, even in non-Western cultures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)335-352
Number of pages18
JournalBritish Journal of Developmental Psychology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2000

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Developmental Neuroscience


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