Percent depth doses and X-ray beam characterizations of a fluoroscopic system incorporating copper filtration:

Kevin A. Wunderle, Andrew R. Godley, Zhilei Liu Shen, Joseph T. Rakowski, Frank F. Dong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Purpose: In this investigation, we sought to characterize X-ray beam qualities and quantitate percent depth dose (PDD) curves for fluoroscopic X-ray beams incorporating added copper (Cu) filtration, such as those commonly used in fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGI). The intended application of this research is for dosimetry in soft tissue from FGI procedures using these data. Methods: All measurements in this study were acquired on a Siemens (Erlangen, Germany) Artis zeego fluoroscope. X-ray beam characteristics of first half-value layer (HVL), second HVL, homogeneity coefficients (HCs), backscatter factors (BSFs) and kVp accuracy and precision were determined to characterize the X-ray beams used for the PDD measurements. A scanning water tank was used to measure PDD curves for 60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp X-ray beams with Cu filtration thicknesses of 0.0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 mm at 11 cm, 22 cm, and 42 cm nominal fields of view, in water depths of 0 to 150 mm. Results: X-ray beam characteristics of first HVLs and HCs differed from previous published research of fluoroscopic X-ray beam qualities without Cu filtration. PDDs for 60, 80, 100, and 120 kVp with 0 mm of Cu filtration were comparable to previous published research, accounting for differences in fluoroscopes, geometric orientation, type of ionization chamber, X-ray beam quality, and the water tank used for data collection. PDDs and X-ray beam characteristics for beam qualities with Cu filtration are presented, which have not been previously reported. Conclusions: The data sets of X-ray beam characteristics and PDDs presented in this study can be used to estimate organ or soft tissue doses at depth involving similar beam qualities or to compare with mathematical models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1275-1286
Number of pages12
JournalMedical physics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • X-ray beam quality
  • fluoroscopy
  • percent depth dose
  • radiation dose

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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