Out-of-hospital resuscitation research: Rationale and strategies for controlled clinical trials

Paul E. Pepe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


There is no better place to test life-saving resuscitation interventions than in the prehospital setting. Patients rarely survive cardiac arrest if resuscitation techniques have failed before leaving the scene. Also, paramedics are usually every experienced in key initial resuscitative techniques, and they routinely operate under strict paramilitary protocol, resulting in better study compliance. In addition, the large study populations that are derivec from emergency medical services (EMS) systems lead to faster study completion and statistically stronger data. Most important, by reinforcing standardized care, rigidly scrutimized trials improve patient care, regardless of the effect of the study intervention. The success of productive EMS research centers requires routine communication between hospital and EMS administrators and their medical directors, designation of mutually acceptable data collectors who quarantee confidentiality, reciprocal exchange of study data provided as educational seminars to the hospitals, commitments to support the budget requests of an EMS program and appropriate system modifications, inclusion of EMS personnel is study design from the very beginning, prospective education of the medical community and media before protocol implementation, an authoritative grassroots medical director, and a paramedic supervisor system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-23
Number of pages7
JournalAnnals of emergency medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1993


  • CPR
  • emergency medical services resuscitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine


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