Normative Values for Capital Femoral Epiphyseal Extension of the Developing Hip Based on Age, Sex, and Oxford Bone Age

Danielle C. Marshall, William Z. Morris, Raymond W. Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Background:Recent evidence suggests that increasing capital femoral epiphyseal extension may be an adaptive response that underlies the development of most cam morphology, whereas slipped capital femoral epiphysis is associated with its deficiency. However, there is an absence of rigorous data on the normal development of epiphyseal extension in the hip joint in modern adolescents. The aim of this study was to establish normative values for anterior and superior epiphyseal extension in a normal adolescent control population.Methods:A total of 210 pediatric subjects (420 hips) between the ages of 8 and 17 years old at the time of presentation who received pelvic radiographs were retrospectively reviewed. Basic demographic data were collected. All subjects with underlying hip pathology were excluded. Epiphyseal extension ratio (EER) was measured, defined as the ratio of extension of the capital femoral epiphysis down the femoral neck relative to the diameter of the femoral head. Superior EER was measured on the anterioposterior view and anterior EER on the frog-leg lateral view bilaterally. Skeletal maturity was graded based on Oxford bone age (OBA) at the proximal femur.Results:The superior EER increased from 0.63±0.05 at age 8 to 0.80±0.05 at age 17. The anterior EER similarly increased from 0.56±0.06 at age 8 to 0.74±0.05 at age 17. The superior and anterior EERs increased with age in a linear fashion for males (r=0.80 and 0.75, respectively) and females (r=0.67 and 0.65) through physeal closure. When subjects were standardized by the OBA stage of the femoral head, females and males showed no statistical difference at OBA stages 6, 7 or 8.Conclusions:Superior and anterior EER increased throughout adolescent development until physeal closure. When controlling for skeletal maturity, there were no significant differences between sexes. This normative data may help guide future management and research of slipped capital femoral epiphysis and cam morphology.Level of Evidence:Level II, Diagnostic.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E335-E340
JournalJournal of Pediatric Orthopaedics
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Hip
  • cam morphology
  • capital femoral epiphysis
  • epiphyseal extension
  • normative values
  • slipped capital femoral epiphysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Normative Values for Capital Femoral Epiphyseal Extension of the Developing Hip Based on Age, Sex, and Oxford Bone Age'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this