Non-destructive detection of blackspot in potatoes by Vis-NIR and SWIR hyperspectral imaging

Ainara López-Maestresalas, Janos C. Keresztes, Mohammad Goodarzi, Silvia Arazuri, Carmen Jarén, Wouter Saeys

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

96 Scopus citations


Blackspot is a subsurface potato damage resulting from impacts during harvesting. This type of bruising represents substantial economic losses every year. As the tubers do not show external symptoms, bruise detection in potatoes is not straightforward. Therefore, a nondestructive and accurate method capable of identifying bruised tubers is needed. Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has been shown to be able to detect other subsurface defects such as bruises in apples. This method is nondestructive, fast and can be fully automated. Therefore, its potential for non-destructive detection of blackspot in potatoes has been investigated in this study. Two HSI setups were used, one ranging from 400 to 1000 nm, named Visible-Near Infrared (Vis-NIR) and another covering the 1000-2500 nm range, called Short Wave Infrared (SWIR). 188 samples belonging to 3 different varieties were divided in two groups. Bruises were manually induced and samples were analyzed 1, 5, 9 and 24 h after bruising. PCA, SIMCA and PLS-DA were used to build classifiers. The PLS-DA model performed better than SIMCA, achieving an overall correct classification rate above 94% for both hyperspectral setups. Furthermore, more accurate results were obtained with the SWIR setup at the tuber level (98.56 vs. 95.46% CC), allowing the identification of early bruises within 5 h after bruising. Moreover, the pixel based PLS- DA model achieved better results in the SWIR setup in terms of correctly classified samples (93.71 vs. 90.82% CC) suggesting that it is possible to detect blackspot areas in each potato tuber with high accuracy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-241
Number of pages13
JournalFood Control
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016


  • Blackspot
  • Hyperspectral imaging
  • Potato
  • SWIR
  • Solanum tuberosum L.
  • Vis-NIR

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science


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