Near-infrared molecular probes for in vivo imaging

Xuan Zhang, Sharon Bloch, Walter Akers, Samuel Achilefu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

80 Scopus citations


Cellular and tissue imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths between 700 and 900 nm is advantageous for in vivo imaging because of the low absorption of biological molecules in this region. This unit presents protocols for small animal imaging using planar and fluorescence lifetime imaging techniques. Included is an overview of NIR fluorescence imaging of cells and small animals using NIR organic fluorophores, nanoparticles, and multimodal imaging probes. The development, advantages, and application of NIR fluorescent probes that have been used for in vivo imaging are also summarized. The use of NIR agents in conjunction with visible dyes and considerations in selecting imaging agents are discussed. We conclude with practical considerations for the use of these dyes in cell and small animal imaging applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12.27
JournalCurrent Protocols in Cytometry
Issue numberSUPPL.60
StatePublished - Apr 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Confocal microscopy
  • Fluorescence lifetime imaging
  • In vitro imaging
  • In vivo imaging
  • Near-infrared fluorescent probe

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Histology
  • Medical Laboratory Technology


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