Multiple listings as a reflection of geographic disparity in liver transplantation

Parsia A. Vagefi, Sandy Feng, Jennifer L. Dodge, James F. Markmann, John P. Roberts

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Background Geographic disparity in access to liver transplantation (LT) exists. This study sought to examine Model for End-Stage Liver Disease-era multiply listed (ML) LT candidate (ie, candidates who list at 2 or more LT centers to receive a liver transplant). Study Design Data on adult, primary, non-status 1 LT candidates (n = 59,557) listed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2011 were extracted from the United Network for Organ Sharing's Standard Transplant Analysis and Research files. Comparisons of ML vs singly listed LT candidates were performed, with additional analysis performed at the donor service area (DSA) and regional level, as well as assessment of the donor population used. Results There were 1,358 (2.3%) ML candidates during the 7-year study period. Multiply listed candidates compared with singly listed candidates were more often male, white, blood type O, nondiabetic, college educated, and privately insured. The odds of pursuing ML increased considerably as time on the waitlist increased. Of the ML candidates, 918 (67.6%) went on to receive a liver transplant (ML-LT), 767 (83.6%) at the secondary listing DSA, which was a median of 588 miles (range 229 to 1095 miles) from the primary listing DSA. When compared with the primary listing DSA, the secondary listing DSA had significantly lower match Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores, as well as shorter wait times. Regional analysis demonstrated significantly higher odds for pursuing ML from LT candidates located within regions 1, 5, and 9. Conclusions A small and distinctive cohort of LT candidates pursue ML, indicating willingness and means to travel to receive a liver transplant. Efforts toward equalizing LT access across regional disparities are warranted, and can help obviate the need for ML.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)496-504
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Abbreviations and Acronyms
  • DRI
  • DSA
  • Donor Risk Index
  • HCV
  • IQR
  • LT
  • MELD
  • ML
  • Model for End-Stage Liver Disease
  • NT
  • OR
  • SL
  • UNOS
  • United Network for Organ Sharing
  • donor service area
  • hepatitis C virus
  • interquartile range
  • liver transplantation
  • multiple listing
  • no transplantation
  • odds ratio
  • single listing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Multiple listings as a reflection of geographic disparity in liver transplantation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this