MR thermometry in the human prostate gland at 3.0T for transurethral ultrasound therapy

Elizabeth Ramsay, Charles Mougenot, Max Köhler, Michael Bronskill, Laurence Klotz, Masoom A. Haider, Rajiv Chopra

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Purpose: To investigate the spatial, temporal, and temperature resolution of a segmented gradient echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique as applied to proton resonance frequency (PRF) shift thermometry at 3 T in the human prostate gland, and to determine appropriate sequence parameters for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-controlled transurethral ultrasound thermal therapy. Materials and Methods: Eleven healthy volunteers (age range 23-58) were scanned at 3 T with a 16-channel torso coil to study the behavior of a gradient echo EPI thermometry sequence. The temperature stability and geometric distortion were assessed for 11 different parameter sets. In a further five volunteers, the prostate T2* was measured. Results: For all scan parameters investigated, the temperature standard deviation within the prostate was less than 1°C, while the distortion was less than 1 mm. Temperature stability was best with higher TE values (up to 25 msec), larger voxel sizes and lower EPI factors, but this had to be balanced against requirements for good spatial and temporal resolution. Prostate T2* values ranged from 30-50 msec. Conclusion: A good balance between temperature stability and temporal/spatial resolution is obtained with TE = 15 msec, voxel size = 1.14 mm, and EPI factor = 9, resulting in a dynamic scan time of 7.2 seconds for the nine slices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1564-1571
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 2013


  • MR thermometry
  • interventional MRI
  • proton resonance frequency shift
  • segmented EPI
  • thermal therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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