Modern Diagnosis and Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Jorge A. Marrero, Theodore Welling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rising, and the number of patients with HCC is expected to more than double over the next 1 to 2 decades. HCC meets the criteria for establishment of a surveillance program. Patients with cirrhosis, regardless of the cause, are at the highest risk for developing HCC and this is the population in which surveillance should be performed. (Alpha-fetoprotein and hepatic ultrasonography are the currently recommended surveillance tests. If a surveillance test is abnormal, there is a need for a recall test for diagnostic evaluation of HCC. Triple-phase imaging is recommended for evaluation at recall, with MRI being more sensitive and specific. Novel genetic markers can improve the histologic diagnosis of early HCC. The Barcelona staging classification is the best system for determining the prognosis of patients and it is linked to an evidence-based treatment algorithm. Resection, transplantation, and percutaneous ablation are considered curative interventions and are currently applied to about 30% of all patients with HCC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)233-247
Number of pages15
JournalClinics in Liver Disease
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2009


  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatitis B
  • Hepatitis C
  • Liver cancer
  • Surveillance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology


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