Background: Recently, MicroRNAs (miR) and AMP-kinase (AMPK) have emerged as prominent players in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. We hypothesized that components of the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) pathway are targeted by miRs and alter AMPK signaling during pathological cardiac stress. Methodology/Principal Findings: Using a mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), we demonstrated early elevation of miR-195 and miR-451 in HCM hearts, which targets MO25, a central component of the MO25/STRAD/LKB1 complex that acts as an upstream kinase for AMPK. We show functional targeting of MO25 by miR-195 and -451. Further in vitro interrogation of MO25 as a functional target validated this hypothesis where over-expression of miR-195 in C2C12 cells knocked down MO25 expression levels and downstream AMPK signaling (phosphorylation of Acetyl CoA carboxylase [ACC] and AMPK activity assay), similar to MO25 knockdown in C2C12 cells by siRNA. Parallel changes were measured in 60 day R403Q HCM male hearts that were rescued by short-term administration of AICAR, an AMPK agonist. Conclusions/Significance: Elevated miR-195 targets the LKB1/AMPK signaling axis in HCM progression and implicates a functional role in HCM disease progression. MiR-195 may serve as potential therapeutics or therapeutic targets for heart disease.
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